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Building intertextuality in the classroom: approaching Edgar Allan Poe through literary and non-literary resources

By Julio Uribe Ugalde

Academic Paper

Due to overexposure to technology, teaching literature to teenagers has become a pedagogical challenge in today’s educational context. This article proposes a method to bridge the gap between readers and texts by using literary and non-literary resources as an approach to intertextuality. This method will be explained by using American writer Edgar Allan Poe’s works “The Fall of the House of Usher” (1839), “The Tell-Tale Heart” (1843) and “The Raven” (1845).

Key words: Intertextuality, Poe, Music, Television, Literature

 

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Translating the Poetry of Graciela Huinao: Finding the Authentic Voice Within

By Margaret Towner

Academic Paper

This article discusses the translation of literary works by contemporary Latin American women, specifically the poetry of Graciela Huinao, a Mapuche-Williche writer from Southern Chile. Given the opportunities for travel and the development of technology such as the Internet, translators today have many ways to interact with writers in order to delve deeper into the translation of their texts. In this context, elements such as hybridity, heteroglossia, paradox, grammatical structures, cultural nuances, and the author’s intention can be explored in greater detail. The translation of Graciela Huinao’s poetry by the author of this article is used to share examples of the exploration of literary and conceptual elements through the use of extensive communications enabled by technology. And in the case of Graciela Huinao’s writing, the relevance and overlapping of Spanish and Mapuzugun, the language of her people, becomes a significant part of the dialogue.

Key words: contemporary translation, Graciela Huinao, hybridity, technology, Mapuche, women writers

 

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El lugar como espacio de denuncia y significación en el poemario Wafpule Mülenymun (Aquí estamos) de Rubén Curricoy.

By Elvira Rodríguez Droguett

Academic Paper

Existe una vinculación entre la poesía mapuche y la política. En esta, encontramos distintos ejes temáticos desarrollados por los autores. En este caso, nos interesa revisar aquella que apunta a la construcción de la identidad a partir de las características del lugar. El objetivo de este artículo es establecer una relación entre la poesía, la ecocrítica y el movimiento autonomista mapuche en la obra del poeta Rubén Curricoy. En esa tríada, la idea de lugar se vuelve fundamental, pues desde ahí surgen estas relaciones. Desde el lugar, se critica el desarrollo industrial que atenta contra la tierra, además, se construye un espacio identitario. La aproximación a la poesía se realizará a partir del concepto de lugar propuesto por L. Buell y las ideas sobre el territorio trabajadas desde el movimiento autonomista mapuche.

Key words: Poesía mapuche, autonomía, ecocrítica, lugar, territorio

 

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Escenarios de frontera y migración en la voz poética de Faumelisa Manquepillan en “Paseo Ahumada”

By María Angélica Peralta Valderrama

Academic Paper

Este artículo busca escuchar la voz poética de Faumelisa Manquepillan en su poema “Paseo Ahumada”, en el cual escenifica parte de las experiencias y sentimientos vividos cuando, en la década de 1980, debe migrar desde su comunidad de origen a la ciudad de Santiago para trabajar como “nana” y así aportar a la economía familiar que se encontraba en una situación de pobreza. La cantautora y poeta nos lleva a recorrer sentimientos de dolor y discriminación en un espacio fronterizo, buscando ser una voz para otras mujeres y para su comunidad al denunciar y a la vez reivindicar a quienes han quedado forcluidos de los espacios de poder. Desde una perspectiva en base a los pensamientos de las feministas poscoloniales y de la mirada decolonial, se busca seguir el relato que la poeta construye desde su lugar, desde sus inscripciones emotivas, alejándose así de las imágenes que han estereotipado a la mujer indígena mapuche en una sola lectura.

Key words: frontera, migración, nana, decolonial  

 

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The Image Keeps Talking: A Visual Interrogation of the Colonial Archive of the Mapuche People

By Sebastián López Vergara

Academic Paper

This essay interrogates the colonial visual archive of the Mapuche people as a decolonial exercise. As a decolonial intervention, it moves away from phenomenological approaches to visual archives in which meaning resides only in the image. Rather it proposes to engage with colonial history and its social formations as ongoing forms of political power that give shape to the Chilean nation-state, modernity, and capitalist extraction. A decolonial engagement with visual culture is not a restoration of the “original meaning” of colonial archives, but a critical interrogation of the remainders of structural forms of subjugation and differentiation from the present. Thus, I propose to place Gustavo Milet Ramírez’s photographic portraits of Mapuche women along with the racialization of the Mapuche people and dispossession and extraction of their territories at the turn of the twentieth century. I read these images from the present with Francisco Huichaqueo Pérez’s short film Chi Rütram Amulniei ñi Rütram in order to unlock the rigidity of colonial meaning and explore questions of subaltern history-making, gender, Indigeneity, culture, and extractivism. For this final point, I will discuss the complex contestations that Indigenous media offers to critically engage with colonial visual regimes and forms of cultural agency.

Key words: Visual culture; colonialism; archives; Mapuche  

 

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The Desolate Paradise: Empire, Exile and Existentialism in Colonial Latin America: Antonio di Benedetto’s Zama and Juan José Saer’s The Witness

By Matt Jones

Academic Paper

The link between exile and existentialism is often lost in the depersonalised world of the Other, where individual expression and desire, as well as the individuals themselves, are blurred by the broad metaphors and sweeping generalisations used to describe and understand groups of people. Yet, both Antonio di Benedetto’s Zama and Juan José Saer’s The Witness offer precise and distinct visions of the powerful effect exile and oppression have on the individual and their sense of identity, belonging and hope. Recently translated into English, Zama subverts traditional imperial/colonial stereotypes to offer a more complex vision of the existential effect of colonisation on the individual. Similarly, The Witness deconstructs the age of exploration and complicates the received wisdom of this period of history and its silenced characters. Both novels use the colonial period as an allegory for Latin America’s position in a contemporary global setting, and as such speak to groups struggling for sovereignty or autonomy. In addition, either explicitly or by implication, both novels turn the Latin American gaze back toward Europe and so offer insights for those looking to understand their role as colonisers in the postcolonial Anglophone world. This essay aims to identify the existential pressure created by exile and examine how the struggle for identity manifests itself in Latin American literature. Given that Latin American writers continue to find inspiration and allegory in the colonial experience even after two centuries of independence, and given that the Anglophone world has much less experience of the postcolonial setting, it seems highly relevant that we study these insights in detail.

Key words: English literature, postcolonial, exile, existentialism, sovereignty  

 

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Ficciones: Argentina in V. S. Naipaul’s The Return of Eva Perón and Colm Tóibín’s The Story of the Night

By Enrique Alejandro Basabe

Academic Paper

Drawing on their travels to Argentina under the last military regime (1976-1983) and its aftermath, V. S. Naipul and Colm Tóibín produced narratives about the country that are worth examining for the different versions of our recent history displayed by both works for an English-speaking readership. In The Return of Eva Perón Naipaul turned his experience of Argentina into a series of virulent journalistic articles ascribing its postcolonial condition mostly to Argentineans themselves. For his part, Tóibín chose Argentina as the bleak backdrop to his first gay novel, The Story of the Night, an inhospitable home in which its main character has to find the fragments of his identity. From a comparative perspective, I briefly describe in this reflective paper the key themes used by Naipaul and Tóibín in their portrayal of Argentina, and I study the divergent points of view towards the times under consideration that the writers adopt in view of their differing ideological agendas. Whereas Naipaul’s travelogue is grounded on its exceptional literary quality but on truths that call to be disputed; even though set in a relatively realistic context, Tóibín’s novel summons the reader to a serious interrogation of the premises upon which the Argentine reality of the 1980s and 1990s is based. I finally discuss the forever-fictional quality attributed to or inflicted on the representation of the country by both journalists and writers. Throughout the text, I keep to a rather intimate tone and to my perspective as a member to the culture under representation.

 

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On Tangle Formations and Fluid Narratives: Scrapbooking and Photography in Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close

By Michelle Lezana

Academic Paper

Along the axes of the still-flourdishing tendency in industrialized societies to render and mediate experience through image-making practices, and the attraction towards taking photographs of events permeating contemporary narrative, the present study intends to analyze the impact and role of intermedial practices between photographic and verbal language in Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close by Jonathan Safran Foer, with an specific emphasis on the protagonist’s scrapbook Stuff That Happened to Me. Given that Oskar Schell decides to perpetuate what occurs to him primarily through pictures, his diary challenges traditional ways of journaling and storytelling through scrapbooking strategies, thus disrupting the teleological reading of Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close, while becoming an intertextual resource, a narrative practice and a method of signification.

In order to lay an analysis of the impact of “Stuff that Happened to Me” along the pages Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close, selected case-studies are seen through the lens of Analog Fictions for the Digital Age by Julia Breitbach and Writing with Scissors by Ellen Gruber Harvey, joined to essentials of photographic theory. Ultimately, by posing questions such as: does Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close entail a radical provocation on the relationship between photography and literature, or is it a mere transposition of 18th century scrapbooking practices? Is this novel in its construction just a historical result of the long-known dialogue between word and image, or another symptom of the present information overload? Or is it, surprisingly, a consequence of its contextual circumstances – namely, an age of visual dominance? These inquiries will open the opportunity to briefly address ‘the visual turn’ in literature and the understanding (or the necessity to understand) new hybrid modes of reading and writing.

 

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Ecoturism and Environmental Concerns: The Rise of Eco-travel Writing?

By Mariana Roccia

Academic Paper

This essay seeks to broadly delve into the production of creative non-fiction travel writing within the context of contemporary environmental writing, particularly, by exploring its connection to ecotourism. Travel, according to the novelist Pico Iyer, “shows us the sights and values and issues that we might ordinarily ignore; but it also, and more deeply, shows us all the parts of ourselves that might otherwise go rusty”; thus, travelling brings in both the traveller’s subjectivity and perception, which can be a means to explore certain “political urgencies” and the “life-and-death dilemmas” (“Why we travel?” 3) that we may fail to see from our comfort zone. Environmental issues such as global warming, biodiversity loss and air pollution affect people’s attitudes and choices, and travelling is not an exception. Paradoxically, in accomplishing such an endeavour, we also contribute to the increase of our carbon footprint and environmental stress. The underlying hypothesis is that these attitudinal changes along with the current global environmental crises have a significant impact within the wider field of environmental writing and have given rise to a new sub-genre called eco-travel writing. This advances the question as to the extent current environmental concerns are reflected in contemporary writing, and how ecotourism frames the production of non-fiction travel writing that reflects on these global issues. The scope will then be narrowed down to reflect on eco-travel writing in South America, particularly to works addressing the Patagonia Region. Examples will be drawn to reflect on the contemporary state-of-the-art and examine whether this genre is developing in this part of the world.

 

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Lucy Pevensie, An (Eco)feminist Heroine: Girlhood and Nature in The Chronicles of Narnia

By Macarena Vargas Peiret

Academic Paper

The Chronicles of Narnia are one of the most memorable pieces of children's literature. However, they have been criticised due to the apparent misogynist portrayal of female characters. Ecofeminism recognises that the oppression suffered from both women and nature are a result of the male domination of society, and this article presents how Lucy Pevensie is an ecofeminist heroine as she is able to connect with nature and use her "feminine" traits in her favour.

 

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Every Night the Universe Passes over Santiago. Transnational “Ecocinema” and Visualising Environmental Histories in Patricio Guzmán’s Nostalgia for the Light

By John Parham and Pippa Marland

Academic Paper

This paper tests the capacity of media and popular culture to articulate complex ecological ideas, carrying out an analysis of Patricio Guzmán’s 2010 documentary Nostalgia de la luz [Nostalgia for the Light]. Through applying and developing arguments involved in the study of “ecocinema”, including the concept of “flow”, the paper also considers the possibility that texts situated within a transnational media industry might articulate localized perspectives on place, nature, and people, able to resonate with a global audience. The film is set in the Atacama desert, a location which brings together cosmologists, palaeontologists, archaeologists, women searching for traces of the “disappeared”, and men who were imprisoned in the desert’s Chacabuco concentration camp – also the site of late 19th / early 20th century nitrate mining. According to Guzmán, these people are united by a common purpose: their ongoing attempt to uncover the stories of the past, from the origins of the universe to more recent social and political narratives. Through this emphasis on memory, the paper argues, Guzmán develops a radical form of nostalgia which reveals the desert’s significance not only to Chilean history but also its connection to the matter of the cosmos and to flows of global capital, a connection which implicates the film’s global audience both ecologically and socio-politically. Thus, the paper makes a case for the ecological significance of the film both in terms of the relationship it establishes between deep environmental and planetary history and a recent human history embedded in modernity, and its ability to foster a form of transnational eco-cosmopolitanism.

 

 

 

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The Wonderland of Ecology

By Natalia Bulask

Academic Paper

This paper argues for a reinterpretation of canonical school texts, in this case Alice in Wonderland, in search for an ecopedagogical reading that enables to construe empathy with other-than-human beings. By analyzing the shift in power structures of the relations between Alice and the beings of Wonderland, a path of empathy can be traced towards a biocentric perspective both of language construction, and real-life activism.

 

 

 

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Wesageechak and the Weetigo: The Formation and Definition of Dancer Okamasis' Identity in Tomson Highway's Kiss of the Fur Queen

By María Elena Villablanca Fuenzalida

Academic Paper

This paper contends that by looking beyond the traumatic experiences of the brother- protragonists of Tomson Highway's Kiss of the Fur Queen, we can find a message of hope and reconciliation, not found in existing interpretations of the novel, Within this we also find positive examples of gender identities that fall outside of traditional understandings of gender.

 

 

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La lectura de la poesía como forma de aburrimiento: El caso de Tan Lin

By Felipe Cussen

Academic Paper

En este ensayo pretendo ofrecer una perspectiva crítica de la problemática contemporánea de las lecturas de poesía. Para ello consideraré algunos de los diversos soportes y espacios que el poeta estadounidense de origen chino Tan Lin (1957) ha utilizado para sus propias lecturas. Como podrá observarse, estas opciones forman parte de una poética, definida como "ambient stylistics", que permite establecer vínculos con música y las artes visuales.

 

 

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The Mind against the Hours: Bergsonian Conception of Time in Mrs Dalloway by Virginia Woolf.

By Paulo Lorca

Academic Paper

When schematizing her ideas during the course of writing Mrs Dalloway, Virginia Woolf wrote in her diary on Monday, October 15, 1923, that she had discovered what she called the "tunnelling process" by which she would tell the past of her characters by means of " instalments" (68); this envisionment refers not only to the particular relations of time and memory as displayed particularly in Mrs Dalloway, but they also hint at what became one of the pivotal concerns of Modernist writers during the first half of the twentieth century, which was the meditation on mnemonic experience and the relation between the inner world of the mind and the nature of time.

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“Whatever exists without my knowledge exists without my consent”: Solipsism versus Free Will in Blood Meridian.

By Felipe Muñoz

Academic Paper

Blood Meridian has been called one of the greatest novels of the English language, in no small part due to its unapologetic representation of violence to explore a collage of thematic mainstays of western literature. For all its importance, however, its purposefully muddy, cryptic narrative has prevented analyses of the same from avoiding heavy-handed, nihilistic readings of the work.

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Hermione Granger through the Focus of Feminist Theory

By Valentina Rivera

Academic Paper

‘Definitions belong to the definers, not the defined’’ – Toni Morrison, Beloved Female characters in children’s literature are often given passive roles, lacking sense of agency or power within the story. They have been commonly represented as ‘damsels in distress’; figures that seldom take part in adventure and are only validated by the appearance of a man that rescues them or saves them from danger.

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“(Don’t!) Think Pig”: Jacqueline Wilson’s Novel Girls Under Pressure as Bibliotherapy for Eating Disorders.

By Valeria Tapia

Academic Paper

It is impossible to deny the power that books have to influence and even change the lives of readers. Under this premise, this article explores how the narrative style of Jacqueline Wilson's YA novel Girls Under Pressure may serve as bibliotherapy for young readers struggling with eating disorders.  

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Teaching Children’s Literature: An Overview.

By Jean Webb

Academic Paper

The intention of this article is to give an overview of the study and teaching of children’s literature from an international perspective. The study of writing for children can reveal much about a culture since the constructs of culture, national identity and values are embedded in writing for children, no matter where it originates.

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A Thing that Cannot Be Put Back Again

By Francisco Díaz Klassen

Academic Paper

One of the most compelling features of the genre of science fiction is its configuration, “a curious mixture of invented gadgetry and archetypal narrative motifs very obviously derived from folk tale, fairy tale and Scripture, recycling the myths of Creation, Fall, Flood and a Divine Savior, for a secular but still superstitious age” (Lodge, 137). The narrative of myths which sought to explain the present by looking at the origins of the world might have given way to narratives that seek to explain the functioning of the present by predicting alternate futures (or alternate presents or alternate pasts). As Susan Napier has observed, an “intriguing aspect of science fiction [is] its ability to uniquely reflect and comment upon modern culture” (329).

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“To Play the King”: Poder y representación en Julius Caesar de William Shakespeare

By Lucía Carla Imbrogno

Academic Paper

Julius Caesar tiene su primera aparición en la edición in folio de 1623 bajo el nombre de The Tragedie of Iulius Caesar. En cuanto a su fecha de composición, existe amplio consenso entre los críticos en ubicarla alrededor de 1599. El argumento de la obra recorre el día previo al asesinato de Julio César en el Senado por parte de conspiradores republicanos, los conflictos que se desencadenaron inmediatamente después y que culminaron con la llegada de Octavio al poder, conocido como el emperador Augusto.

The Coronation Portrait of Elizabeth I. Image public domain through Creative Commons licensing NPG London

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Ontological Uncertainties of Identity in Angela Carter’s Night at the Circus and Toni Morrison’s Beloved

By Gabriel Romero

Academic Paper

This essay aims to explore to what extent Angela Carter´s Night at the Circusand Toni Morrison´s Beloved address the ontological uncertainties of identity.

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Laughing Not to Cry: Resisting Postmodern Melancholia through Humor in Thomas Pynchon’s The Crying of Lot 49

By Rodrigo Zamorano

Academic Paper

The present article explores the function that humor plays in relation to the portrayal of postmodern culture in Thomas Pynchon’s 1966 novel The Crying of Lot 49. It seeks to expose the understated but persistent melancholy that characterizes Pynchon’s representation of postmodern American culture, and how it relates to the extensive use of humor in the novel. Following the conventions of the detective novel, The Crying of Lot 49 revolves around Oedipa Maas and her quest for a mysterious underground organization called Tristero, a pursuit set in a world that, as the novel unfolds, is shown to be overwhelmingly fragmentary, oversaturated and nonsensical. The possibly destabilizing and threatening effects that this reality has on individuals find their expression in what this analysis characterizes as postmodern melancholia. In the novel, humor is used to simultaneously mask, counterbalance and resist this threat. The diverse forms in which humor is instantiated are analyzed to show how they contribute to the configuration of an implied reader, one that would be able to articulate a form of resistance to postmodern melancholia through a cynical approach to the problems posed by Pynchon’s novel.

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El jardín perverso, o William Blake contra la religión

By Luis Aranguiz Kahn

Academic Paper

En el siglo XVIII Inglaterra vio nacer a quien posteriormente sería uno de los poetas más renombrados de su tradición literaria. Nos referimos a William Blake (1757-1827). Blake se destacó no sólo por la escritura de lo que se ha denominado poesía visionaria, sino porque además practicó las artes del grabado y la pintura. El ejercicio de estas tres áreas estaba en directa relación con un profundo misticismo que quedó impregnado en su obra.

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Shedding Light through the Fog: Ignorance, Truth, and the Imagery of Light and Darkness in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness.

By Susana Langarica

Academic Paper

From the outset, Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness is a novel in which the imagery of light and darkness plays quite an important role. The ideas conveyed through these concepts, however, are not at all one-dimensional or straightforward, which is clear when looking at the many interpretations that light and darkness give place to within the narrative itself.

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But What Can I Do?

By Molly Petrey

Academic Paper

Extremely proud of her successes and conscious of her reputation, George Eliot seems to have held high expectations for herself throughout her career. As a woman author in male-dominated Victorian England, Eliot had few easy opportunities for professional success or advancement, and because of that disadvantage, her livelihood and success necessitated ambition.

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Unmasking Meaning: The Failure of Existential Quests in Jonathan Safran Foer’s Tree of Codes

By Juan Pablo Vilches

Academic Paper

Tree of Codes by Jonathan Safran Foer is a reworking of the 1957 translation of Bruno Schulz’s collection of short stories, The Street of Crocodiles, originally published in Polish in 1934. Published in 2010, Foer’s novel has been considered revolutionary due to its particular format that presents pages with cut outs that evidence the process of carving out Schulz’s original words that gave origin to Foer’s narration. Tree of Codes can be thus described as an objet d’art or artifact in which the textual art of literature converges with the plastic art of sculpture to produce an intimate relation between form and content.

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Whither the Novel?

By Melanie Correa Alfaro

Academic Paper

In his novel The Information (1995), British novelist and essayist Martin Amis criticizes the contemporary literary world, through both form and content—its structure and its characters’ ideas. Although the novel presents several postmodernist traits, blurring the limits between its author and its narrator, it mostly deals with the loss of control of the author (and the narrator), and the ever higher efforts that must be made by readers, resulting in commercially successful but low-quality literature being eventually more read than the literary works usually accepted by the academic canon. This direction may open the discussion about the fate of literature as viewed by writers themselves.

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“Ain’t Nothin’ to It but to Do It”: The Process of Constructing an Identity as a Marginalized Subject in Maya Angelou’s I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings.

By Teresa Donoso

Academic Paper

The aim of this thesis is to analyze the process of identity construction of a marginalized subject in autobiography. For this purpose Maya Angelou’s I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings is studied taking into consideration gender and race as crucial aspects. A fluid approach of construction is proposed to move towards the goal of constructing a sense of identity that embraces the different positions the self may take. Through the analysis of this paper, the hidden ideologies of language are also analyzed as they represent the biggest challenge for the protagonist due to her belonging to the margins of discourse. This study shows that the construction of a sense of self is by no means easy and a marginalized subject may go beyond the hidden ideologies present in language to achieve it. Such task might be possible if the individual takes hold of language as a weapon to defend herself and refuses to be silenced.

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Curiosidad, ciencia y transgresión moral en Christopher Marlowe: el beso entre Helena de Troya y Dr. Fausto

By Gabriel Hoecker Gil

Academic Paper

La figura faústica marlowiana elevó a una situación trágica la infamia medieval por sed de conocimiento dispuesta a cualquier cosa por satisfacerse. Si bien la personalidad poética de Fausto fue finalmente condenada, su vida deja instalada la duda de si el espíritu que se entrega por completo a su impulso más genuino, es del todo pecaminoso. La transfiguración de la curiositas de vicio medieval a virtud moderna despojó su carga maligna transformándose en uno de los elementos fundamentales para la fundación de la ciencia moderna en términos éticos, sosteniéndose en presupuestos teológicos medievales para su legitimación. A continuación, pretendemos indagar en aquellas tentaciones sensuales desarrolladas en la obra, que el pensamiento medieval juzgó como parte de los intereses superfluos que seducían a la curiosidad, a partir de la interpretación de dos momentos de la pieza dramática: la danza de los pecados capitales y el encuentro erótico con Helena de Troya.

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Ambiguous Identities: The Subversion of Gender in Angela Carter’s The Passion of New Eve and Cristina Peri Rossi’s La Nave de los Locos

By Andrés Ibarra Cordero

Academic Paper

This paper discusses issues of gender identity and dystopia in Angela Carter’s The Passion of New Eve and Cristina Peri Rossi’s La Nave de los Locos. It compares both women writer’s concerns in the creation of normative gender identities and how those identities are, at the same time, undermined by subversive characters. Carter and Peri Rossi present a variety of micro-worlds, which correlate with the different positions that women occupy in a variety of discursive orders. It also points to how social technologies, mythical representations and social practices constantly endorse essential representations of femininity and masculinity. As a result this paper argues that these novels, though from different socio-cultural contexts, give evidence of the artificial construction of gender and engage in gender performance and parody to provide a subject position outside the normative binaries of sexual difference, and flirting with androgyny as a possible sexual utopia.

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The Brain of Pooh: Winnie-the-Pooh and Non-Epistemic Wisdom

By María Paz Muñoz

Academic Paper

The present article studies A.A. Milne’s Winnie-the-Pooh and The House at Pooh Corner as adult intended books. Childhood has traditionally been perceived as a state we grow away from, however, these stories criticize this process under an epistemic debate. Milne has developed a fantasy that functions as a response to the inadequacies of the external world. The construction of knowledge and the stability of language are explored under the philosophies of Martin Heidegger ‘s Being on Time and Ludwig Wittgenstein’s On Certainty. Milne uses a ‘Bear of Very Little Brain’ to defend the position of the child, and motivate the reader into considering the losses of growing up in terms of the limitations this has on our understanding of the world.

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Rudolfo Anaya: Exploration of Myth and History in Creating a New Ethos

By Francisco A. Lomelí

Academic paper

The article aims to examine the context of Rudolfo Anaya’s development of myth throughout his works and concentrates on its mechanisms, techniques and philosophical manifestations in Bless Me, Ultima specifically. There is a modus operandi about Anaya’s use of myth in order to instill a new sense and awareness of environment and identity. The novel represents the kind of renaissance evident in Chicano culture since the l970s at the same time that it establishes connections and links with myths in Mexico.

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From Sweethearts to Troubled Hearts: Betty & Veronica and Enid & Rebecca as Portraits of America’s Youth

By Cristián Valenzuela

Academic paper

The purpose of the following essay is to illustrate how Archie Comics’ leading ladies Betty & Veronica and Daniel Clowes’ Ghost World protagonists Enid & Rebecca correspond to representations of teenage girls in the United States according to societal values of different decades of the twentieth century. While both pairs of best friends are similar in that they are comprised by one blonde and one brunette and live in suburban contexts, they are opposite in regards to the kind of adolescent they embody. On the one hand, Betty and Veronica depict the image of the “all-American girl”, carrying strong traditional societal values of the American 1950s. On the other hand, Enid and Rebecca represent the rise of teenage angst and loss of identity, major social trends in popular culture of the eighties and nineties. Through this comparative analysis, it is possible to see how female teenage protagonists of comic books are fundamental nodes through which social themes of different contemporary epochs are channeled.

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Bossypants: Autobiography and Women’s Selves

By Camila Gutiérrez

Academic paper

The present article analyzes Tina Fey’s hilarious autobiography in the light of Valérie Baisnée’s, Georges Gusdorf’s and Hayden White’s theories on (female) identity building, autobiography and narrativization of truth, among others. Throughout Bossypants, Fey comments on key feminist principles while recollecting essential events of her life at the same time, creating an autobiographical work that constitutes a milestone in her career and in American feminist comedy. Although the impact of her work is softened and disguised as comedy —in a clear attempt to reach the masses— the literary strengths of her autobiography lie in its capacity to weave bildungsroman narrative with a highly critical feminist revision of her past and present experiences. In the present analysis, concepts and ideas such as “fiction” and “truth”, “institutionalized sexism” and “public” and “private” realms of the author’s memory are long dealt with in an effort to legitimize an autobiography that could equivocally be overlooked in spite of its deep and straightforward attempt to rewrite and reconfigure female truth.

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Trains of Reflections: Languages of the Mind in Mary Wollstonecraft’s Letters written in Sweden, Norway and Denmark

By Rosanna Wood

Academic paper

Letters written in Sweden, Norway and Denmark, markets itself as a travel memoir. While performing this function as an insightful glimpse into late eighteenth-century Scandinavia, it is a beautifully written account of Wollstonecraft’s personal journey, assembled as it is through the twenty-five letters she wrote over the duration of its course. This article reads the uniquely powerful descriptions of wild land and seascapes, and their dialogue with a brilliant and fragile psyche, as structured by contemporary philosophies of the mind.

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The Forbidden Aspect of Erotic Desire Embodied in the Figure of the Vampire in “Carmilla” and “Olalla”

By Camila Armijo

Academic paper

During the Victorian period, there was a dichotomy for women. On the one hand, there was the image of an “Angel of the House”, who was basically the submissive wife within a strongly patriarchal system. On the other hand, women could also be portrayed as monsters/prostitute because they refused to fulfill the role of a perfect wife and preferred to have an uncontrollable sex desire. This research will focus on the analysis of women as “monsters” by using the nineteenth-century vampire stories “Olalla” by Robert Louis Stevenson and “Carmilla” by J. Sheridan Le Fanu. These two works will provide an exploration into the forbidden or transgressive aspects of erotic desire embodied in the figure of the vampire, precisely, female vampire...

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Frankenstein’s Monster and the Qualitative Experience

By Marcela Cañete

Academic paper

The most fascinating topic treated in Mary Shelley’s novel, Frankenstein, is human nature and consciousness in non human beings. The novel’s character Viktor Frankenstein plays the role of the inventor of a being brought to life only by artificial means. This creature, though possessing the same physiological characteristics as human beings, has no conscience due to its non human, artificial precedence. However, he is constantly giving signs that he could be regarded as a conscious being, principally because of his use of language throughout the novel that expresses he is actually experiencing qualia. The present research paper will attempt to question the possibility of the existence of qualia phenomena in non human entities, based on the example of Frankenstein’s creature. The representation of Viktor Frankenstein’s creature in the novel as a subject with qualitative experience raises the question of whether he is conscious or rather an imitator of qualia, thus a philosophical zombie.

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The Rise of the Feminine Voice in Thomas Hardy’s “An Imaginative Woman”

By Vanessa Gómez

Academic paper

This present article deals with the idea of the feminine voice in Thomas Hardy’s short story “An Imaginative Woman”. As a naturalist writer, Hardy portrayed women’s faith as tragic and obscure; this how Ella Marchmill, Hardy’s heroine, encounters nothing but doom and disease when trying to free herself from her ascribed duty as the “Angel of the house”. However, it is through her narration that she can challenge the social impositions that were place upon women; their public role and their intimacy. The concept of the “New Woman” rises as a feminine figure that opposes these constraints: a woman who speaks her mind and explores her sexuality by means of her imagination, the only place that does not surrender to male domination.

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Divided Self in Jean Rhys’ Voyage in the Dark

By Andrés Ibarra

Academic paper

This paper discusses the problems of identity, time and place in Jean Rhys’ 1934 novel, Voyage in the Dark. It analyses Rhys’ aesthetics concerns in the creation of a subjective construction of the imperial metropole and the colonial space. In doing, this paper suggests how Rhys builds a bridge between contemporary modernist narrative techniques and a preceding Post-colonial perspective. The constant juxtaposition of time and place makes of Rhys’ protagonist, Anna Morgan, an elusive self. By means of this fragmented self, the author aims to reformulate colonial power relations and raise crucial questions about discourses of gender and national identity. As a result, this paper engages in a Post-colonial thought, arguing how issues about gender and race issues are articulated in Rhys’ novel. Rhys creates the subjectivity of a marginalized woman showing the effects of colonization and creating a metropolitan female identity based on fragmented and juxtaposed memories.

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Masculinidad crítica y desestabilización valórica en El jardín de al lado y The picture of Dorian Gray

By Francisco Toro

Academic paper

El presente trabajo analiza la representación del sujeto del joven masculino (Bijou) que el protagonista y narrador de El jardín de al lado,de José Donoso, lleva a cabo en su relato. Pretendo rescatar de esta representación la atribución de una superioridad al personaje, que sitúa al narrador como un supuesto subordinado a él. Junto a esto, se provoca la agudización de una crisis valórica y pérdida de certezas con respecto a la masculinidad, vida burguesa e ideas políticas. En este sentido, es posible plantear que en la problemática subyace como intertexto la novela The Picture of Dorian Gray de Oscar Wilde y, secundariamente, el Fedro de Platón, pues en estos textos se describe un formato de interacción erótica masculina que incluye y explica aspectos como los ya mencionados.

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The Judge, the Idiot, and Cormac McCarhty’s Critique of Violence in Blood Meridian

By Rodrigo Zamorano

Academic paper

The following paper examines the relation between the couple made up by Judge Holden and the Idiot in Cormac McCarthy’s Blood Meridian; or, The Evening Redness in the West. Set in the U.S.-Mexico borderlands during the mid-nineteenth century, McCarthy’s novel is an exploration of the violence underlying the march of American colonial westward expansion in which Judge Holden is a symbol of the desire to dominate others through the use of violence. As such, Holden is confronted and complemented by the figure of the Idiot. The latter works as a degraded, helpless and even more grotesque version of the Judge, and throughout the novel parallelisms and contrasts are established between the two characters. In many passages one mirrors the other; at other times, both make up a unity that reveals the full extent of Holden’s brutal ideology, with the idiot as its mute critic. Finally, the relations that this paper aims to expose may be read as a commentary on the irrationality of a philosophy that celebrates and legitimizes violence not only as a goal in itself, but also as the only way in which human beings can relate to one another.

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The Unfallen Woman: Vulnerability and Agency in Frances Burney’ Evelina

By Tamara Agger

Academic paper

“Remember, my dear Evelina, nothing is so delicate as the reputation of a woman: it is, at once, the most beautiful and most brittle of all human things” (Burney 166). This is the advice that Reverend Villars imparts to his seventeen-year-old charge, the titular heroine of Frances Burney’s novel Evelina, or the History of a Young Lady’s Entrance into the World. And while it may sound rather pretentious and stiff (one gets the sense that he copied it straight out of a conduct book), this passage highlights a fundamental concern of Evelina’s world: that of female reputation. For the protagonist, a young, unmarried woman in 18th-century England, preserving her “reputation” (i.e. chastity) is no laughing matter. To lose it or even appear to lose it–to experience a sexual fall—will make her a social outcast. Evelina, as she makes her ‘entrance into the world,’ is in a very precarious position in regards to predatory men who would lead her towards such a fall…

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Cyborgs, Cloning and the Anihilation of the Self: Dystopian Discourses and Fragmentation in Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let me Go

By Constanza Contreras

Academic paper

Degenerative diseases are the pandemic of our century. Cancer, Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s, among others, are the source of fear in modern society. The body, as a primary source of experience, appears to be constantly menaced by the different developing pathologies and eventualities that threaten its wholeness. In this contemporary society, where the canonical beauty of the body appears as industrialized and sold to the highest bidder; where consumerism and publicity has led to the worship and equalization of beauty and health, and, consequently, success; diseases are signaled as the deathliest of enemies, for they rob the capitalist market of its productive factor. Now, imagine a world where these diseases are curable; where illness, aging, and any damage the body has suffered can be repaired. This is the premise of Kazuo Ishiguro’s novel Never Let Me Go, a peculiar memoir in which a dystopian society has found the cure for the urging problem of aging and death: the cloning and raising of human individuals for the harvest of organs. The obvious ethical dilemma the institutionalization of cloning presents, nevertheless, appears to be only mildly questioned —if questioned at all— by the characters in the narrative: the clones submit to their fates with no sign of struggle or subversion.

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“Beastly Customs” and a “Prodigious Nuisance”: A Revision of the Noble Savage in Dickens’ Barnaby Rudge

By Christine Gmür

Academic paper

If one considers its critical reception, the reading of Dickens’ Barnaby Rudge often seems to have presented more of a struggle than a pleasure. It is no surprise, then, that for a long time Barnaby Rudge has “generally been judged as a failure” (Marcus 169). The confusion over characters and their respective role in the novel has a long tradition and is usually believed to be due to the text’s unusual construction. Barnaby Rudge is said to be lacking a clear centre, which is visible in its ambiguity over the main character.

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California Dreaming: Gabriela Mistral’s Lucid Cold War Paranoia

By Elizabeth Horan

Academic paper

Gabriela Mistral’s boundary crossing strategized and anticipated multiply shifting dynamics during the early years of the Cold War. Border-crossings prove relevant to the method of triangulation deployed throughout this study. As a method, triangulation draws from multiple kinds of measures, relating correspondence to interviews, historical maps and photographs, survey data, consular reports and more.

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Quartet of Selves: Quinn’s Personal Identity

By Sebastián López

Academic paper

The present article discusses the concept of personal identity in Paul Auster’s City of Glass by focusing on Daniel Quinn’s multiple “selves”. It questions the idea of the Cartesian self as an underlying and neverchanging structure because that notion is problematic to understand the quartet of selves that Daniel Quinn represents: “himself”, William Wilson, Max Work and Paul Auster. Instead, it takes into account Daniel Dennett’s idea that the self is a useful abstraction that helps to understand our cognitive states by means of a coherent narration, and Derek Parfit’s notion of successive selves. All these help to understand how Daniel Quinn’s personal identity is built in the novel

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Madness, Rejection and Violence in Cormac McCarthy’s Child of God

By Gustavo Segura

Academic paper

The following paper aims to analyze the relationship between social violence and madness present in CormacMcCarthy’s novel Child of God. The analysis focuses on the novel’s protagonist, Lester Ballard, as a man who becomes an outcast of society and is forced to live outside the social order. Ballard becoming a murderer is the direct result of the social violence perpetrated against him. However, this violence is never seen as such because society has created an objectified image of Ballard as a madman that dictates that he deserves this punishment. The image of the madman is analyzed from the perspective of Foucault’s Madness and Civilization. Foucault’s madman is able to see that this prejudice against madness is a symptom of humans’ impossibility to understand each other, which reveals that the social system is an illusion, like the symbolic order Ballard creates with the corpses of those he murdered.

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Backward Through the Veil: Individual and Group Identity in Dream from my Father

By Shep Stearns

Academic paper

This essay proposes that there is a common identity progression that structures the narratives of many works of Afro-American autobiography and fiction. This progression starts with a hegemonic Black group identity designed to contain and constrain a liberated conception of individual identity for the protagonist. After recognizing the falsity of this socially prescribed racist group identity, the protagonist cycles through alternative, ostensibly counter-hegemonic, group identities with the ultimate realization that these too are false and constricting. The affirmation and social recognition of a stable individual identity is seen as impossible in the context of the US racial identification system. Death, exile, or exit from the system in some other form is therefore the common resolution to these narratives. Barak Obama’s autobiography Dreams from My Father is treated as a negative case in this proposed trend. It is argued that Obama’s narrative basically reverses the traditional progression. This is claim is based on the idea that Obama’s work culminates not with his own affirmation of self-identity independent of the constraints of the US’s system of racial group identification, but with the affirmation of a self that is determined by Obama’s choice to identify and be identified with Afro- Americans as a group.

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These (heavy) Boots Are Made for Walking: Space and Trauma in Jonathan Safran Foer’s Extremely Loud & Incredibly Close

By Francisco Aránguiz

Academic Paper

The present  essay  aims  to  illustrate  the  close  relationship  between  trauma  and  space  existent  in  Jonathan Safran Foer’s Extremely  Loud  &  Incredibly  Close,  and  how  these  two  concepts  are  tightly  knit  together  in  the novel. The analysis focuses on the way in which the nine-year-old protagonist, Oskar Schell, relates to both public and private space after losing his father and how he manages to work through his trauma by means of wandering around the city. However, urban space cannot offer Oskar complete recovery due to the intrinsic nature  of  the  city  as  a  palimpsest.  Therefore,  the  dynamic  nature  of  urban  space  bars  the  protagonist  from reaching  closure  for  his  trauma  as  his  narrative  is  persistently  interrupted  by  and  mingled  with  those  of strangers. In the case of Oskar’s quest for  closure  leads  him  to  another’s trauma instead of his own,  thus avoiding a complete recovery. This, moreover, is seen as something positive since it grants him the potential of renegotiating his traumatic memories over time.

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Prelinguistic and Linguistic Dimensions in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein

By Camila Gutiérrez

Academic Paper

The present paper analyzes the building of identity and consciousness of the wretch in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. First, it provides an analysis of the prelinguistic stage the wretch goes through in light of Ernst Cassirer’s theory on animal reactions and human responses. Here, the concept of “symbol” plays a central role, since it is what triggers the wretch’s emotional development. Secondly, the paper presents a series  of Jaques Lacan’s concepts on the symbolic such as symbolic order, Mirror Stage and the Other, in order to illustrate how the wretch attempts to become more human as its linguistic competence improves. Through the analysis of the process of language acquisition, the wretch’s emotional development is traced in order to see how his initial sympathetic kindness turns into disappointment and brutal desire for revenge.

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Representations of White Creole Women: The Characterization of Aunt Cora in Wide Sargasso Sea

By Elsa Maxwell

Academic Paper

This article explores Jean Rhys‘ characterization of white creole women through a critical reading of Aunt Cora‘s role in the novel Wide Sargasso Sea. It argues that Aunt Cora plays an important role in Antoinette‘s identity  configuration,  both  as  a  point  of  identification  and  divergence.  By  tracing  the  similarities  and differences between Aunt Cora and Antoinette‘s identity positions, it illustrates how Rhys‘ characters resist facile  categorization  as  white  female  creoles.  It  also  examines  the  importance  of Aunt Cora‘s resistance to English patriarchy in relation to the stereotypical representation of the mad‘ creole, showing that although Aunt Cora is silenced by male dominance, she defies being driven mad by it. In this sense, Aunt Cora‘s characterization as a sane, although muted, white creole serves to counter colonial representations of the mad West Indian creole woman as portrayed in Charlotte Brontë‘s depiction of Bertha in Jane Eyre.

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Mourning Remains: An Impossible Elegy

By Maria José Navia

Academic Paper

The present article deals with the idea of mourning as an (im)possible act of translation in the book (box) of poems: Nox, by Anne Carson. It analizes the way in which that particular literary artifact serves the purpose of both remembering and mourning the death of a lost brother through offering hospitality (in Derrida’s take on the term) to other languagues: the language of foreign poetry, the language of pictures, of souvenirs, of remainders and reminders. The body of the dead brother (Michael) is replaced by a corpus (of works, of letters, of language) and as such it is mourned by the poet/translator, thus revealing how mourning remains an impossible elegy no matter how hard one tries to fill it with light.

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“Never Trust the Artist, Trust the Tale”: D.H. Lawrence’s “A Modern Lover” as an Aesthetic Autobiography

By Camila Rojel

Academic Paper

The British writer D. H. Lawrence developed a particular manner of intertwining his life experience with the tools that fiction offered him, embodied in Modernism. In his short story “A Modern Lover”, this writer was able to unravel what the theorist Suzanne Nalbantian characterizes as the “aesthetic autobiography”, consisting precisely in the systematic transformation of raw biographical material into fictionalized scenes that build up a literary work. “A Modern Lover”, the “aesthetic autobiography” in which Lawrence hid the autobiographical treasures of his intense youth with his close friend Jessie Chambers, works at different levels. The central autobiographical elements represent the deep workings of fiction at the level of characters, especially the protagonist, Cyril Mersham. The peripheral autobiographical elements represent a subjective, personal view on time and space, and how the same affects the narrative stream and the characters involved in the story. An analysis of the short story in question allows us to regard D. H. Lawrence among the modernist writers–Virginia Woolf and James Joyce–that changed the classical notions of autobiography and fiction, as well as opening new fields for literary criticism to expand.

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Duality, Paradox and Confusion in Joseph Conrad’s “Freya of the Seven Isles”

By Susan Stringer-O‟Keeffe

Academic Paper

This paper examines Conrad’s use of duality in “Freya of the Seven Isles” in relation to fundamental aspects of the text such as setting, narrative voice, characterisation and themes, and it explores the way in which the play on opposites creates a tension from the beginning between comedy and tragedy. The exotic setting in the Dutch East Indies, far from the rules of ordered society, in shallow waters between land and sea where sudden tropical storms are common, makes this account of diabolic revenge seem credible. The first-person narrator, whose ironic tone serves to free him from responsibility, as well as to distance him emotionally from the catastrophe, reassures us and alarms us in turn, revealing the contradiction between his original light-hearted view of events and his knowledge of their terrible outcome. Main characters form interchanging pairs, and all characters are paradoxical, so that they often misjudge each other and themselves. Although “Freya” is a love story, love and pride are inseparable, and pride perhaps has a greater role in the unfolding drama than love. There is also a close connection between pride and humour, with constant references to smiles and laughter, but little genuine mirth. Laughter has multiple functions, being used as a weapon or a defence mechanism reflecting ignorance, shame, fear and embarrassment. At the end nobody is laughing, except conceivably the scorned lover who precipitates the tragedy, and the reader is left ruminating causes and consequences in a tangle of possibilities. 

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Pop Culture Society in Neil LaBute’s Fat Pig

By Constanza Brahm Smart

Academic Paper

The following study discusses the influence of popular culture in American society today by means of analyzing Neil LaBute’s play Fat Pig and the ways in which pop culture shapes the plot, the characters, and the society depicted in the play. As part of his trilogy devoted to the problems and consequences of the obsession with beauty and physical appearance, LaBute’s Fat Pig uses pop references mixed with cruel and witty dialogues to create a reflection of a society that has put pop culture on a pedestal and that has let it shape its people.The paper discusses how the play’s four characters are off-springs of a society that has been shaped by the media (films, television, and magazines) and how Fat Pig is not just about the issues surrounding weight, but goes further inthe search for a self-criticism of the way we judge people who are different in any way. In order to analyze all of these areas, three main authors are discussed: John Storey and his book Cultural Theory and Popular Culture, Manfred Pfister and his bookTheory and Analysis of Drama, and finally Angela McRobbie and her essays comprised inPostmodernism and Popular Culture. To conclude, the link between the theater and the cinema is discussed in order to show how they both enhance each other’s strengths.

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‘A Stranger to Herself’: The Pedagogical Presence of the Other in Paula Meehan’s Poetry

By Pilar Villar Argaiz

Academic Paper

In this age of globalization, interracial and cross-cultural encounters have become common aspects of everyday life. This paper aims to examine how Irish writer Paula Meehan engages in this global discourse of interculturality by articulating aspects of cross-cultural and inter-ethnical exchange. I subsequently link Meehan’s openness to cultural diversity and her alertness to the voices of the marginalised to the context of 21st century Ireland. The first section discusses Meehan’s subversive representations of the ‘internal’ Others of Irish society. Her depictions of otherness challenge the often rigid boundaries which define national and ethnic identities and open a liberating place which successfully accommodates diversity. The second section focuses on Meehan’s attempt to move away from the ethos of individual egotism which marks contemporary life. In particular, she advocates a model to confront the experiences of ‘foreigners’ based on the self-exploration of one’s own subconscious. In line with Kristeva’s argument, Meehan implies that discovering the ‘stranger’ hidden in oneself is an essential prerequisite to accept, in an unconditional and genuine way, the presence of external ‘Others’ in Irish society. While this can easily be dismissed as an abstract utopia, Meehan’s ideal becomes ethically and politically relevant in the contemporary context of a multi-cultural society open to large-scale immigration. 

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Challenging Christopher´s “Disability” to Communicate Properly in Mark Haddon’s The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time

By Kristina Chaparenko

Academic Paper

The present paper is a critical review of Mark Haddon’s novel The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time.Many reviewers have claimed that Christopher Bloom has a disability to decipher, to comprehend and to depict objects, actions and other phenomena due to his condition, since he has Asperger’s syndrome. In opposition to this idea, a research ofparticular types of graphic representation used by the narrator reveals that he does not merely replace troublesome words, but masterly uses pictures to represent the truth. Theoretically speaking, he succeeds in the process of creating Mitchell’s imagetext, which is the perfect interplay of both terms that result in a new reinforced meaning. Even more so, by using these ways of representation, which are illustration, approximation and truthful representation, Christopher is able to guide the reader in the complex comprehension process. That is, his level of textual consciousness allows us torefute the idea of Christopher as a person who is incapable of communicating

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One Ring to Bring Them Both and in the Darkness Bind Them: The Shire as Frodo Baggins’s Topographical Equivalent

By Margarita Maira

Academic Paper

This paper deals with the problem of identity and place in J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings. It attempts to show that the main character’s connection with his homeland is deeper yet than what is usually perceived. When comparing Frodo’s journey and the Shire’s development throughout the novel it is possible to see many coincidences in their paths. As a result, we may state that the Shire mirrors Frodo’s evolution. This curious discovery prompted the creation of the term “topographical equivalent” to describe their unique relationship. This, in turn, affects the hero’s journey, for when he reaches the Shire’s doppleganger, the land of Mordor, he is also facing his own. This encounter not only affects Frodo as a near death experience. It results in a painful extension of consciousness too, since the world is capable of containing an evil so opposite to his and his homeland’s natures. A change is produced from a local conception of place to a broader one of space. Both these traumatic events alter the hero. Furthermore, these consequences become quite revealing when trying to decipher Frodo’s strange relationship and final abandonment of the Shire after the Quest of the Ring is over.

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Multiculturalism, Telenovelas and Ideology in Woman Hollering Creek

By Gustavo Segura Chávez

Academic Paper

The following paper discusses the notion of multiculturalism as a violent process in which immigrants, specifically Mexican, have to live without showing their conflicts because they might be considered ‘fundamentalist.’ Žižek’s notion of the arbitrariness of multiculturalism and McCracken’s theory of commodities as forms of cultural insertion are confronted in relation to two short stories that appear in Sandra Cisneros’ Woman Hollering Creek. I will finally support the idea that multiculturalism (accepting other cultures) is a form of hegemony because U.S. society ‘selects’ those who can belong to it. Cisneros’ stories which are analyzed in this essay are “Remember the Alamo” and “Woman Hollering Creek,” which present two characters, Tristán and Cleófilas, respectively, who give up every possibility of defending their rights as a gay man and an abused wife, because this defense might be seen by U.S. society as a subversive discourse. Then, Tristán prefers to live as a transvestite who is loved by his audience and Cleófilas lives in silence, watching soap operas in order not to bother anyone, not even her husband who beats her. If they defended their rights as a homosexual and woman, they would have an ‘ideology’ according to the U.S. society, so they would never be heard as they are ‘unfaithful’ to those who have accepted them in their country; Tristán and Cleófilas remain quiet to be accepted.

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Agota Kristof’s The Notebook: Child Evil and Trauma

By Constanza Contreras Ruiz

Academic Paper

The paper gives a reading of AgotaKristof’s novel The Notebook regarding its treatment of evil and child trauma in the light of Sigmund Freud’s ideas, the concepts of Martin Stringer on urban violence and children, and child response to trauma as seen by Jesse Harris and Jon A. Shawn. Its aim is to pose the extremely rational and cruel actions of the novel’s protagonists as a defense mechanism against the traumatic experiences experimented in wartime. In order to do so, the paper analyses the Victorian archetype of the inherently innocent child, and how this conception is challenged in Kristof’s narrative by the possibility of the children being either intrinsically mean or deeply traumatized by the horrors of wartime; the paper also deals with the concepts of evil as a social construction and with the objectiveness of the narrative as a way of portraying rationality.

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